E-Learning Library

Below you will find an index of all the supportive reading materials referenced throughout the Digital Clinic. Each reference has been selected for its merit and will assist your learning during each stage of the course.

Guidelines


2015 ESC/ERS Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary hypertension

The Joint Task Force for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Pulmonary Hypertension of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and of the European Respiratory Society (ERS)


Echocardiographic Assessment of the Right Heart in Adults

A Report from the American Society of Echocardiography.


ATS Statement: Guidelines for the Six-Minute Walk Test

This statement provides practical guidelines for the 6-minute walk test (6MWT).

Books


Pulmonary Circulation: Diseases and Their Treatment

Edited by: Andrew J. Peacock, Robert Naeije, Lewis J. Rubin. 

Chapter 9 - 'Clinical Features' 


Chapter-2: Echocardiography in Pulmonary vascular diseases-Diagnosis

This chapter is part of the e-book on Echocardiography in Pulmonary Vascular Diseases. Editor: Stefano Ghio, Division of Cardiology, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo Pavia, Italy.


Chapter-3 Echocardiography in Pulmonary vascular diseases_Follow up

This chapter is part of the e-book on Echocardiography in Pulmonary Vascular Diseases Editor: Stefano Ghio, Division of Cardiology, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo Pavia, Italy.


Exploring the Structural Basis for Pulmonary Gas Exchange

Chapter 2 from "The Pulmonary Circulation and Gas Exchange" edited by Wiltz W. Wagner, Jr., PhD, and E. Kenneth Weir, MD, first published in 1994.

Talks


Stefano Ghio - Echocardiography can replace RHC for RV assessment PRO

A talk given by Stephano Ghio at SAPH 2016 4th - 6th February 2016, Amman Jordan.


CON: The Right Ventricle in Pulmonary Hypertension is Best Imaged Using Advanced Modalities such as MRI and PET- Not Echocardiography

A presentation from the 5th Joint SAPH/PVRI Annual Meeting in Istanbul, 24-27th April 2012


Ron Oudiz: 6 Minute Walk Test

A presentation from the 2nd PVRI/FDA Conference, Bethesda, Washington DC, April 30-May 1st 2012


Oxygen uptake efficiency slope is a valid submaximal measure of exercise performance in pre capillary pulmonary hypertension

A presentation at the PVRI/ECCPS joint conference and the 7th PVRI Scientific Workshops and Debates, January 27-31st 2014, in Bad Nauheim, Germany.

 


Right heart afterload and exercise

A presentation at the PVRI/ECCPS joint conference and the 7th PVRI Scientific Workshops and Debates, January 27-31st 2014, in Bad Nauheim, Germany.


Robert Naejie - Assessing functional capacity in adults

A talk by Robert Naejie at the PVRI 10th Annual World Congress, January 14th - 17th 2016, Rome, Italy.


David Systrom - Why do we get short of breath with exercise?

A talk by David Systrom during the PVRI 11th Annual World Congress, January 2017, Miami, Florida.


T. Kashour: Cardiac Catheterization Investigation of the Pulmonary Hypertensive Adult Patient

A presentation by Tarek Kashour from the 5th Joint SAPH/PVRI Annual Meeting in Istanbul, 24-27th April 2012.


David Kiely - The role of imaging in the PH clinic

A talk by David Kiely at the PVRI 10th Annual World Congress, January 14th - 17th 2016, Rome, Italy.


Horst Olschewski - Nuclear Medicine and CT Imaging in PH

A talk by Horst Olschewski at the PVRI 10th Annual World Congress, January 14th - 17th 2016, Rome, Italy.


Onno Spruijt- Repeated measurements of right ventricular structure and function with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in pulmonary hypertension

A talk by Onno Spruijt at the PVRI 10th Annual World Congress, January 14th - 17th 2016, Rome, Italy.

Blog posts

Articles


BioMed Central

Capillary pCO2 helps distinguishing idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension from pulmonary hypertension due to heart failure with preserved ejection fraction.


Frontiers in pediatrics

Biomarkers for pediatric pulmonary arterial hypertension 


Pulmonary function in primary pulmonary hypertension

The study was done to ascertain the degree to which abnormalities in resting lung function correlate with the disease severity of patients with primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH)


Peripheral airway obstruction in primary pulmonary hypertension

As there is controversy about changes in lung function in primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH), lung mechanics were assessed with a focus on expiratory airflow in relation to pulmonary haemodynamics.


Primary pulmonary hypertension. A national prospective study

A national registry was begun in 1981 to collect data from 32 centers on patients diagnosed by uniform criteria as having primary pulmonary hypertension.


A noninvasive algorithm to exclude pre-capillary pulmonary hypertension

Data from 251 patients referred for suspicion of pre-capillary PH were used to develop a noninvasive diagnostic decision tree


Follow-up tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion predicts survival in pulmonary arterial hypertension

Evaluating the prognostic significance of follow-up tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) in PAH.


The WHO classification of pulmonary hypertension: A case-based imaging compendium

These cases illustrate the use of imaging in classifying patients into WHO PH Categories 1-5.


Reproducibility of intracardiac and transpulmonary biomarkers in the evaluation of pulmonary hypertension

In patients evaluated for PH, reproducibility of NPs and cGMP at intracardiac and transpulmonary sites is high and is comparable to that of peripheral venous measurements.


High prevalence of hypothyroidism in patients with primary pulmonary hypertension

The prevalence of hypothyroidism in patients with PPH is high (22.5%). Patients with PPH should be investigated for the possibility of coexisting hypothyroidism.


Hyponatremia Predicts Right Heart Failure and Poor Survival in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

We prospectively followed 40 patients with PAH and examined the relationship between serum sodium and right heart function as well as survival.


The prognostic impact of follow-up assessments in patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension

Changes in established predictors of outcome during the course of the disease provide important prognostic information in patients with IPAH.


Time from symptoms to definitive diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension: The delay study

A retrospective, multi‑center, descriptive investigation in order to (a) understand what factors contribute to persistent diagnostic delays, and (b) examine the time from initial symptom onset to a definitive diagnosis of IPAH.


Utility of the Physical Examination in Detecting Pulmonary Hypertension. A Mixed Methods Study

The presence of a loud P2 or audible right-sided 4th heart sound are associated with PH. However the physical examination is unreliable for determining the presence of PH.


Prognostic value of blood gas analyses in patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension

A 12-yr retrospective analysis assessing arterialised capillary blood gases, haemodynamics, exercise variables and survival in 101 patients with IPAH.


Capillary pCO2 helps distinguishing idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension from pulmonary hypertension due to heart failure with preserved ejection fraction

PcCO2 levels were significantly lower in IPAH compared to PH-HFpEF and may provide useful information in differentiating between both conditions.


Assessment of survival in patients with primary pulmonary hypertension: importance of cardiopulmonary exercise testing.

Peak VO(2) and peak SBP are independent and strong predictors of survival in PPH patients.


Exercise Pathophysiology in Patients With Primary Pulmonary Hypertension

Patients with PPH can safely undergo noninvasive cycle ergometer CPET to their maximal tolerance.


Incremental prognostic value of cardiopulmonary exercise testing and resting haemodynamics in pulmonary arterial hypertension

Peak VO2, PVR and ΔHR independently predict prognosis in patients with PAH. 


Cardiopulmonary exercise testing in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension: An evidence-based review

The present evidence-based review indicates CPX may provide valuable information in the PH population.


The Role of Exercise Testing in the Modern Management of Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

A summary and critical analysis of the current role of exercise testing in PAH and speculation on future trends.


Safety of cardiac catheterization at a center specializing in the care of patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension

When performed at a PH center with expertise in the care of PAH patients, cardiac catheterization is associated with low complication rates and mortality.


Determination of Cardiac Output by the Fick Method, Thermodilution, and Acetylene Rebreathing in Pulmonary Hypertension

Thermodilution and acetylene rebreathing are useful tools for assessing cardiac output in patients with PH, even in the presence of low cardiac output or severe tricuspid regurgitation.


Reading Pulmonary Vascular Pressure Tracings. How to Handle the Problems of Zero Leveling and Respiratory Swings

There is variability of zero leveling procedures, and the current recommendation of end-expiratory reading may not always be adequate.


Pulmonary-Artery Catheterization video

This NEJM-subscriber video demonstrates the insertion of a pulmonary-artery catheter.


Ventilation–Perfusion Scintigraphy Is More Sensitive than Multidetector CTPA in Detecting Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Disease as a Treatable Cause of Pulmonary Hypertension

Results demonstrate that V/Q scintigraphy has a higher sensitivity than CTPA in detecting CTEPH as a potential curable cause of PH.


Evaluation of patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension for pulmonary endarterectomy

Criteria considered in selecting patients for pulmonary endarterectomy surgery.


CT features of pulmonary arterial hypertension and its major subtypes: a systematic CT evaluation of 292 patients from the ASPIRE Registry

Current classification identifies 5 major groups, defining prognosis and treatment.


CT Scan Findings in Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension

CT scan findings can help to predict hemodynamic improvement after PTE.


Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in pulmonary arterial hypertension

CMRI offers a number of advantages over other tools such as echocardiography.


Changes in Right Ventricular Function Measured by Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Patients Receiving Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension–Targeted Therapy

Direct measurement of RV function using cardiac MRI can fully assess potential benefits of treatment in PH.


Quantitative Estimation of Right Ventricular Hypertrophy using ECG Criteria in Patients with Pulmonary Hypertension: A Comparison with Cardiac MRI

The BL score, which can be defined using a standard 12-lead ECG, correlates with RVM and RVMI in patients with PAH. A score >0.7 mV was a highly specific but insensitive indicator of RVH in these patients.


Diagnosis and Assessment of Pulmonary Vascular Disease by Doppler Echocardiography

This review will focus on the 2-D and Doppler features necessary to assess pulmonary vascular disease (PVD).

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