Clinical Perspectives with Long-Term Pulsed Inhaled Nitric Oxide for the Treatment of Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

PVRI Member Authors: D. Dunbar Ivy

Abstract

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a chronic, progressive disease of the pulmonary vasculature with a high morbidity and mortality. Its pathobiology involves at least three interacting pathways – prostacyclin (PGI2), endothelin, and nitric oxide (NO). Current treatments target these three pathways utilizing PGI2 and its analogs, endothelin receptor antagonists, and phosphodiesterase type-5 (PDE-5) inhibitors. Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) is approved for the treatment of hypoxic respiratory failure associated with pulmonary hypertension in term/near-term neonates. As a selective pulmonary vasodilator, iNO can acutely decrease pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance without affecting cardiac index or systemic vascular resistance. In addition to delivery via the endotracheal tube, iNO can also be administered as continuous inhalation via a facemask or a pulsed nasal delivery. Consistent with a deficiency in endogenously produced NO, long-term pulsed iNO dosing appears to favorably affect hemodynamics in PAH patients, observations that appear to correlate with benefit in uncontrolled settings. Clinical studies and case reports involving patients receiving long-term continuous pulsed iNO have shown minimal risk in terms of adverse events, changes in methemoglobin levels, and detectable exhaled or ambient NO or NO2. Advances in gas delivery technology and strategies to optimize iNO dosing may enable broad-scale application to long-term treatment of chronic diseases such as PAH.

Published in:

Pulmonary Circulation Vol 2: No 2 cover image

June 2012

Pulmonary Circulation Vol 2: No 2

View this journal

Our research platform is the world.

Through worldwide collaboration, we can begin to answer the question of a global disease.

Join the PVRI
standard-example-image.jpg