Endothelial caveolin-1 loss is an important feature of pulmonary hypertension (PH); the rescue of caveolin-1 abrogates experimental PH. Recent studies in human PH suggest that the endothelial caveolin-1 loss is followed by an enhanced expression of caveolin-1 in smooth muscle cells (SMC) with subsequent neointima formation. In order to evaluate caveolin-1 expression in infants with PH, we examined the available clinical histories, hemodynamic data, and the expression of caveolin-1, PECAM-1, vWF, and smooth muscle α-actin in the lung biopsy/autopsy specimens obtained from infants with congenital heart disease (CHD, n = 8) and lung disease (n = 9). In CHD group, PH associated with increased pulmonary blood flow exhibited loss of endothelial caveolin-1 and PECAM-1 in pulmonary arteries; additional vWF loss was associated with enhanced expression of caveolin-1 in SMC. In the absence of PH, increased or decreased pulmonary blood flow did not disrupt endothelial caveolin-1, PECAM-1, or vWF; nor was there any enhanced expression of caveolin-1 in SMC. In Lung Disease + PH group, caveolin-1, PECAM-1, and vWF were well preserved in seven infants, and importantly, SMC in these arteries did not exhibit enhanced caveolin-1 expression. Two infants with associated inflammatory disease exhibited loss of endothelial caveolin-1 and PECAM-1; additional loss of vWF was accompanied by enhanced expression of caveolin-1 in SMC. Thus, associated flow-induced shear stress or inflammation, but not elevated pulmonary artery pressure alone, disrupts endothelial caveolin-1. Subsequent vWF loss, indicative of extensive endothelial damage is associated with enhanced expression of caveolin-1 in SMC, which may worsen the disease.