Acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are severe syndromes resulting from the diffuse damage of the pulmonary parenchyma. ALI and ARDS are induced by a plethora of local or systemic insults, leading to the activation of multiple pathways responsible for injury, resolution, and repair or scarring of the lungs. Despite the large efforts aimed at exploring the roles of different pathways in humans and animal models and the great strides made in understanding the pathogenesis of ALI/ARDS, the only viable treatment options are still dependent on ventilator and cardiovascular support. Investigation of the pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for initiation and resolution or advancement toward lung scarring in ALI/ARDS animal models led to a better understanding of the disease's complexity and helped in elucidating the links between ALI and systemic multiorgan failure. Although animal models of ALI/ARDS have pointed out a variety of new ideas for study, there are still limited data regarding the initiating factors, the critical steps in the progression of the disease, and the central mechanisms dictating its resolution or progression to lung scarring. Recent studies link deficiency of intersectin-1s (ITSN-1s), a prosurvival protein of lung endothelial cells, to endothelial barrier dysfunction and pulmonary edema as well as to the repair/recovery from ALI. This review discusses the effects of ITSN-1s deficiency on pulmonary endothelium and its significance in the pathology of ALI/ARDS.