The Third International Right Heart Summit was organized for the purpose of bringing an interdisciplinary group of expert physician-scientists together to promote dialogue involving emerging concepts in the unique pathophysiology, clinical manifestation, and therapies of pulmonary vascular disease (PVD) and right heart failure (RHF). This review summarizes key ideas addressed in the section of the seminar entitled “Transplantation in End-Stage Pulmonary Hypertension.” The first segment focused on paradigms of recovery for the failing right ventricle (RV) within the context of lung-alone versus dual-organ heart-lung transplantation. The subsequent 2-part section was devoted to emerging concepts in RV salvage therapy. A presentation of evolving cell-based therapy for the reparation of diseased tissue was followed by a contemporary perspective on the role of mechanical circulatory support in the setting of RV failure. The final talk highlighted cutting-edge research models utilizing stem cell biology to repair diseased tissue in end-stage lung disease—a conceptual framework within which new therapies for PVD have potential to evolve. Together, these provocative talks provided a novel outlook on how the treatment of PVD and RHF can be approached.