Heart rate recovery is an important predictor of outcomes in patients with connective tissue diseaseassociated pulmonary hypertension

PVRI Member Authors: Raed A. Dweik

Abstract

Reduced heart rate recovery (HRR) after exercise is associated with increased mortality in cardiac and pulmonary diseases. We sought to evaluate the association between HRR after the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) and outcomes in patients with connective tissue disease–associated pulmonary hypertension (CTD-PH). Data were obtained by review of the medical records. HRR was defined as the difference in heart rate at the end of the 6MWT and after 1 minute (HRR1), 2 minutes (HRR2), and 3 minutes (HRR3) of rest. All patients with pulmonary hypertension and a diagnosis of systemic sclerosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, or mixed connective tissue disease who underwent the 6MWT between August 1, 2009, and October 30, 2011, were included (n = 66). By Kaplan-Meier analysis, HRR1, HRR2, and HRR3 at different cutoff points were all good predictors, with HRR1 of <16 being the best predictor of time to clinical worsening (log-rank P < 0.0001), hospitalization (log-rank P = 0.0001), and survival (log-rank P < 0.003). By proportional hazards regression, patients with HRR1 of <16 were at increased risk of clinical worsening (hazard ratio [HR]: 6.4 [95% confidence interval (CI): 2.6–19.2]; P < 0.0001], hospitalization (HR: 6.6 [95% CI: 2.4–23]; P < 0.0001), and death (HR: 4.5 [95% CI: 1.6–15.7]; P= 0.003). Patients in the highest tercile (HRR1 of ≥19) were unlikely to have a clinical worsening event (HR: 0.1 [95% CI: 0.04–0.5]; P = 0.001], to be hospitalized (HR: 0.1 [95% CI: 0.02–0.5]; P = 0.001), or to die (HR: 0.3 [95% CI: 0.07–0.9]; P = 0.04]. In conclusion, in patients with CTD-PH, abnormal HRR1 (defined as HRR1 of <16) after the 6MWT is a strong predictor of clinical worsening, time to clinical worsening, survival, and hospitalization.

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Topics

Functional Ability/ Impairment/ Quality of Life/ Physical Activity/ Exercise
Pulmonary Hypertension
Survival

Authors

Omar A. Minai, Quyen Nguyen, Srinivas Mummadi, Esteban Walker, Kevin McCarthy, Raed A. Dweik

Published in:

Pulmonary Circulation Vol 5: No 3 cover image

September 2015

Pulmonary Circulation Vol 5: No 3

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