Assessment of the effects of hepatic impairment and smoking on the pharmacokinetics of a single oral dose of the soluble guanylate cyclase stimulator riociguat (BAY 63-2521)


Riociguat, a soluble guanylate cyclase stimulator developed for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension, is metabolized in part by the liver. Expression of one of the metabolizing enzymes, CYP1A1, is induced by aromatic hydrocarbons in tobacco smoke. Two non-∗∗∗randomized, nonblinded studies were conducted to investigate the pharmacokinetics of riociguat in individuals with mild (Child-Pugh A) or moderate (Child-Pugh B) hepatic impairment associated with liver cirrhosis compared with that in age-, weight-, and sex-matched healthy controls: study 1 included smokers and nonsmokers, and study 2 included nonsmokers only. Data from these studies were integrated for analysis. All participants (N = 64) received a single oral dose of riociguat 1.0 mg. Riociguat exposure was significantly higher in individuals with Child-Pugh B hepatic impairment than in healthy controls (ratio: 153% [90% confidence interval: 103%-228%]) but was similar in those with Child-Pugh A hepatic impairment and controls. The half-life of the riociguat metabolite M1 was prolonged in patients with Child-Pugh B or A hepatic impairment compared with that in controls by approximately 43% and 24%, respectively. Impaired hepatic function was associated with higher riociguat exposure in nonsmokers compared with the population of smokers and nonsmokers combined. Riociguat's safety profile was similar in individuals with impaired or normal liver function. In conclusion, moderate hepatic impairment was associated with increased riociguat exposure compared with that in controls, probably as a result of reduced clearance of the metabolite M1. This suggests that dose titration of riociguat should be administered with particular care in patients with moderate hepatic impairment.

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Pulmonary Circulation Vol 6: No S1 cover image

March 2016

Pulmonary Circulation Vol 6: No S1

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