Population pharmacokinetics and the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationship of riociguat in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension or chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension


This analysis aimed to characterize the pharmacokinetics (PK) and PK/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) relationship of riociguat and its metabolite M1 in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) or pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Blood samples were collected in two phase 3 studies—PATENT-1 (Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Soluble Guanylate Cyclase-Stimulator Trial 1; 12 weeks; PAH) and CHEST-1 (Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension Soluble Guanylate Cyclase–Stimulator Trial 1; 16 weeks; CTEPH)—and long-term extensions. Patients were initially randomized to receive placebo or riociguat, and they received riociguat in the extensions. Nonlinear mixed-effects modeling was used to develop a population PK model describing riociguat PK. PK/PD relationships were investigated by comparing derived PK parameters with changes in PD parameters. Covariate analyses included smoking status, bosentan comedication, bilirubin levels, and baseline creatinine clearance. The PK of riociguat/M1 was described by a one-compartment model. Mean population estimates for riociguat absorption rate constant, clearance, and volume of distribution were 2.17/h, 1.81 L/h, and 32.3 L, respectively; for M1 they were 0.258/h, 3.16 L/h, and 124 L. Interindividual variability was moderate for riociguat and moderate to high for M1. There was no evidence of time- or dose-dependent changes in riociguat/M1 PK. Riociguat clearance was higher in smokers (120% increase) and bosentan-treated patients (36% increase) than in nonsmokers and those not receiving bosentan. There was an inverse correlation between bilirubin and riociguat clearance. In PK/PD analyses, 6-minute walk distance was related to hemodynamic parameters, particularly pulmonary vascular resistance. Riociguat PK were described by a one-compartment model. Effects of covariates on riociguat and M1 PK were established, and a PK/PD relationship was demonstrated. (ClinicalTrials.gov identifiers: PATENT-1, NCT00810693; PATENT-2, NCT00863681; CHEST-1, NCT00855465; CHEST-2, NCT00910429.)

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Pharmacology: Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics
Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension
Pulmonary Hypertension


Soundos Saleh, Corina Becker, Reiner Frey, Wolfgang Mück

Published in:

Pulmonary Circulation Vol 6: No S1 cover image

March 2016

Pulmonary Circulation Vol 6: No S1

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