Leptin (a neuroendocrine peptide that enhances metabolism and acts on the hypothalamus to suppress appetite) and adiponectin (a protein that has insulin-sensitizing, anti-inflammatory, and antiproliferative properties) are involved in the pathobiology of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). We hypothesized that plasma leptin and adiponectin as well as the leptin/adiponectin ratio are abnormal in PAH patients and their levels track with disease severity and functional changes during follow-up. We tested this hypothesis in a cohort of patients included in the 16-week, international, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled FREEDOM-C2 study. Blood was collected at baseline and week 16 in 178 out of 310 randomized patients with PAH. Baseline plasma leptin and adiponectin concentrations were 25 ± 31 ng/mL and 7.8 ± 6.1 ug/mL, respectively. Leptin, adiponectin, and leptin/adiponectin (mean ± SD) changes at 16 week were of small magnitude. Leptin at baseline was significantly associated with older age, higher BMI, higher Borg dyspnea index, and lower NT-pro BNP. Women had higher levels of leptin than men (30.5 ± 33.2 versus 7.2 ± 6.4 ng/mL), even when adjusting for background therapy and etiology (linear regression: β = 21.8, P < 0.001). Adiponectin was negatively associated with BMI and positively associated with NT-pro BNP. Changes in leptin, adiponectin, and leptin/adiponectin ratio adjusted for weight at 16 weeks did not predict functional class, distance walk in 6 min or survival at one, two, three, or four years. Plasma leptin and adiponectin at baseline and their change at 16-week do not appear to significantly impact prognosis in PAH.