Pulmonary hypertension in patients with chronic kidney disease: invasive hemodynamic etiology and outcomes


Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is common in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and associated with increased mortality but the hemodynamic profiles, clinical risk factors, and outcomes have not been well characterized. Our objective was to define the hemodynamic profile and related risk factors for PH in CKD patients. We extracted clinical and hemodynamic data from Vanderbilt’s de-identified electronic medical record on all patients undergoing right heart catheterization during 1998–2014. CKD (stages III–V) was defined by estimated glomerular filtration rate thresholds. PH was defined as mean pulmonary pressure ≥ 25 mmHg and categorized into pre-capillary and post-capillary according to consensus recommendations. In total, 4635 patients underwent catheterization: 1873 (40%) had CKD; 1518 (33%) stage 3, 230 (5%) stage 4, and 125 (3%) stage 5. PH was present in 1267 (68%) of these patients. Post-capillary (n = 965, 76%) was the predominant PH phenotype among CKD patients versus 302 (24%) for pre-capillary (P < 0.001). CKD was independently associated with pulmonary hypertension (odds ratio = 1.4, 95% confidence interval = 1.18–1.65). Mortality among CKD patients rose with worsening stage and was significantly increased by PH status. PH is common and independently associated with mortality among CKD patients referred for right heart catheterization. Post-capillary was the most common etiology of PH. These data suggest that PH is an important prognostic co-morbidity among CKD patients and that CKD itself may have a role in the development of pulmonary vascular disease in some patients.

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Pulmonary Hypertension


Jared M. O’Leary, Tufik R. Assad, Meng Xu, Kelly A. Birdwell, Eric Farber-Eger, Quinn S. Wells, Anna R. Hemnes, Evan L. Brittain

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Pulmonary Circulation Vol 7: No 3 cover image

September 2017

Pulmonary Circulation Vol 7: No 3

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