Injured lung endothelium: mechanisms of self-repair and agonist-assisted recovery (2017 Grover Conference Series)

PVRI Member Authors: Konstantin Birukov

Abstract

The lung endothelium is vulnerable to both exogenous and endogenous insults, so a properly coordinated efficient repair system is essential for the timely recovery of the lung after injury. The agents that cause endothelial injury and dysfunction fall into a broad range from mechanical forces such as pathological cyclic stretch and shear stress to bacterial pathogens and their virulent components, vasoactive agonists including thrombin and histamine, metabolic causes including high glucose and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (OxLDL), circulating microparticles, and inflammatory cytokines. The repair mechanisms employed by endothelial cells (EC) can be broadly categorized into three groups: (1) intrinsic mechanism of recovery regulated by the cross-talk between small GTPases as exemplified by Rap1-mediated EC barrier recovery from Rho-mediated thrombin-induced EC hyperpermeability; (2) agonist-assisted recovery facilitated by the activation of Rac and Rap1 with subsequent inhibition of Rho signaling as observed with many barrier protective agonists including oxidized phospholipids, sphingosine 1-phosphate, prostacyclins, and hepatocyte growth factor; and (3) self-recovery of EC by the secretion of growth factors and other pro-survival bioactive compounds including anti-inflammatory molecules such as lipoxins during the resolution of inflammation. In this review, we will discuss the molecular and cellular mechanisms of pulmonary endothelium repair that is critical for the recovery from various forms of lung injuries.

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Topics

Endothelin and Endothelium & Epithelium and Epithelial Transport
Pulmonary Hypertension

Authors

Pratap Karki

Published in:

Pulmonary Circulation Vol 8: No 1 cover image

March 2018

Pulmonary Circulation Vol 8: No 1

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