Levosimendan is an inotropic and vasodilator drug, which is known to improve cardiac function in animal models of right ventricular (RV) failure. The effects of levosimendan on oxygen consumption and myocardial efficiency in the failing RV is unknown. We investigated the effects of levosimendan on RV function, myocardial oxygen consumption, myocardial external efficiency (MEE), and myocardial metabolism in rats with RV hypertrophy and failure. RV hypertrophy and failure were induced by pulmonary trunk banding in rats. Rats were randomized to seven weeks of treatment with vehicle (n = 16) or levosimendan (3 mg/kg/day) (n = 13). Control animals without pulmonary banding received vehicle treatment (n = 11). RV MEE and RV metabolism were evaluated by echocardiography, 11C-acetate positron emission tomography (PET), 18F-FDG PET, and invasive pressure measurements. . . . .