Exciting Changes for Pulmonary Circulation in 2017
Pulmonary Circulation receives its first Impact Factor of 2.178 !
We are delighted to announce that Pulmonary Circulation received its first Impact Factor of 2.178.
This is a fantastic result and a tribute to our Chief Editors Jason Yuan and Nick Morrell. Congratulations to Jason, Nick and the wider editorial team for this fantastic achievement!
The journal Impact Factor is the measure reflecting the yearly average number of citations to recent articles published. With our new Impact Factor, this now places Pulmonary Circulation at rank 69 out of 126 journals in the cardiology category, and at rank 40 out of 59 journals in the respiratory category.
This considerable achievement confirms that Pulmonary Circulation is recognised as a serious journal for quality material on pulmonary hypertension.
Congratulations to the entire Pulmonary Circulation team and a big thank you to all its contributors.
Increasing in Impact and in Influence
A journal's influence is indicated by its numbers of readers and our readership is growing at a staggering rate. Since launch, our articles have been downloaded over half a million times. Download numbers are
currently increasing by 50% each year, evidence that Pulmonary Circulation is seen as an increasingly important outlet for the most important research in pulmonary vascular disease.
Expanding Editorial Team
Our joint Chief Editors Dr Jason Yuan at The University of Arizona, US, and Dr Nicholas Morrell, University of Cambridge, UK, reflect the international scope of the journal and the breadth of our scope across
basic science and clinical research, and we welcome high quality articles on all aspects of pulmonary vascular disease. As our journal expands we are delighted to announce the appointment of Dr Kurt Stenmark of the University of Colorado, US as Deputy Editor. Dr Stenmark has co-authored 275 publications and has expertise in paediatrics, high altitude, and right heart failure. His is the honoured recipient of the 2015 Robert F. Grover prize from the American Thoracic Society and we look forward to having his expertise and insight help to improve our journal.
Partnership with SAGE Publishing
We are excited to be entering a partnership with SAGE Publishing in January 2017. SAGE is one of the world's leading journal publishers and has 50 years of experience publishing journals in medicine, science,
technology, social sciences, and the humanities. Pulmonary Circulation will beneﬁt from increased global visibility, faster publication times, and SAGE's wealth of knowledge and commitment to scholarship and
To submit your new manuscript to Pulmonary Circulation, use the SAGE submission portal: https://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/pulmonarycirculation
Pulmonary Circulation goes online-only
After five years of publishing Pulmonary Circulation in digital and print formats, we will be online-only from 2017. As an open access journal publishing high quality research in an expanding field, the online format
enables us to benefit from the latest developments in publishing technology without the limitations of print, and brings us into line with the standard format for open access journals.
These changes bring a number of important benefits for our authors. We plan to reduce our reviewing times, and also our production times after your article is accepted. Your published article will utilise cutting-edge technology to ensure maximum visibility and impact. And perhaps most importantly, publishing in Pulmonary Circulation makes your article immediately visible to the entire PVRI community, a global
population of the world's leading scientists and physicians studying the pulmonary circulation and pulmonary vascular disease.
We are pleased to provide access to translation and language editing services for authors to make use of before submitting their article. For a modest fee, the service can provide translation into English from
Chinese, Portuguese, and Spanish. For authors whose article is already written in English and who wish to improve the grammar or language, stylistic editing and formatting services are available.
Article Processing Charges
From 2011 to 2015, we published articles without any cost to our authors or to our readers. This provided an excellent benefit for our authors, whose articles were immediately available open access, worldwide, without any payment being made.
This has been possible due to grant funding support for the launch and establishment of the journal. We are now moving from being grant supported towards a self-sustaining model and we need to recover our
costs of publishing the journal from the article processing charges (APCs). For two years our APC has been very low in comparison with other open access journals at $1,000 for a research article and lower fees for
other article types.
Publishing a journal is a labour-intensive endeavour and with our journal expanding, it has not been possible to keep the APC so far below that of other journals. From January 1, 2017, we will be increasing the APC for
research articles to $2,000. This will enable us to work towards a sustainable model and continue publishing the journal through the long term. We are pleased to say that the APC still remains considerably lower
than the majority of open access journals in our field.
We want to take this opportunity to thank our authors, reviewers, Associate Editors, Editorial Board members, PVRI colleagues, publishers, and all others involved in producing Pulmonary Circulation. We hope you
will continue to submit your articles, and we look forward to collaborating with you in the future.
11th PVRI Annual World Congress on PVD in Miami, USA - January, 2017
Put the date in the diary: Thursday 26th January 2017 – Sunday 29th January 2017, Miami, USA
Thanks to Stephen Archer and Kurt Stenmark for heading up the Scientific Committee which is in charge of the scientific planning of this event. Stephen and Kurt have already put together a great draft programme and we are thankful to our membership from all around the world for sending their suggestions for topics, all of which have been passed on to Stephen and Kurt for consideration.
See you in Miami!
PC Featured Articles
Volume 6 | Number 4 | December 2016
Unique aspects of the developing lung circulation: structural development and regulation of vasomotor tone
Yuangsheng Gao, David N. Cornfield, Kurt R. Stenmark, Bernard Thébaud, Steven H. Abman, J. Usha Raj
December 2015, Vol. 5, No. 4: 407-425
Stable URL: http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/full/10.1086/688890
From the Abstract:
This review summarizes our current knowledge on lung vasculogenesis and angiogenesis during normal lung development and the regulation of fetal and postnatal pulmonary vascular tone. In comparison to that of the adult, the pulmonary circulation of the fetus and newborn displays many unique characteristics. Moreover, altered development of pulmonary vasculature plays a more prominent role in compromised pulmonary vasoreactivity than in the adult. Clinically, a better understanding of the developmental changes in pulmonary vasculature and vasomotor tone and the mechanisms that are disrupted in disease states can lead to the development of new therapies for lung diseases characterized by impaired alveolar structure and pulmonary hypertension. Read more…Link to full text
Transcription factors, Transcriptional Co-Regulators, and Epigenetic Modulation in the Control of Pulmonary Vascular Cell Phenotype: Therapeutic Implications for Pulmonary Hypertension. (2015 Grover Conference Series)
Soni S. Pullamsetti, Frédéric Perros, Prakash Chelladurai, Jason Yuan, Kurt Stenmark
December 2016, Vol. 6: No. 4: 448–464
Stable URL: http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/full/10.1086/688908
From the Abstract:
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a complex and multifactorial disease involving genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors. Numerous stimuli and pathological conditions facilitate severe vascular remodeling in PH by activation of a complex cascade of signaling pathways involving vascular cell proliferation, differentiation, and inflammation. Multiple signaling cascades modulate the activity of certain sequence-specific DNA-binding transcription factors (TFs) and coregulators that are critical for the transcriptional regulation of gene expression that facilitates PH-associated vascular cell phenotypes, as demonstrated by several studies summarized in this review. Past studies have largely focused on the role of the genetic component in the development of PH, while the presence of epigenetic alterations such as microRNAs, DNA methylation, histone levels, and histone deacetylases in PH is now also receiving increasing attention. Epigenetic regulation of chromatin structure is also recognized to influence gene expression in development or disease states. Therefore, a complete understanding of the mechanisms involved in altered gene expression in diseased cells is vital for the design of novel therapeutic strategies. Recent technological advances in DNA sequencing will provide a comprehensive improvement in our understanding of mechanisms involved in the development of PH. This review summarizes current concepts in TF and epigenetic control of cell phenotype in pulmonary vascular disease and discusses the current issues and possibilities in employing potential epigenetic or TF-based therapies for achieving complete reversal of PH. . . . Read more…Link to full text
Original Research Article
Sunit Singla, Tong Zhou, Kamran Javaid, Taimur Abbasi, Nancy Casanova, Wei Zhang, Shwu-Fan Ma, Michael S. Wade, Imre Noth, Nadera J. Sweiss, Joe G. N. Garcia, Roberto F. Machado
December 2016, Vol. 6, No. 4: 465–471
Stable URL: http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/full/10.1086/688316
From the Abstract:
Pulmonary hypertension (PH), when it complicates sarcoidosis, carries a poor prognosis, in part because it is difficult to detect early in patients with worsening respiratory symptoms. Pathogenesis of sarcoidosis occurs via incompletely characterized mechanisms that are distinct from the mechanisms of pulmonary vascular remodeling well known to occur in conjunction with other chronic lung diseases. To address the need for a biomarker to aid in early detection as well as the gap in knowledge regarding the mechanisms of PH in sarcoidosis, we used genome-wide peripheral blood gene expression analysis and identified an 18-gene signature capable of distinguishing sarcoidosis patients with PH (n = 8), sarcoidosis patients without PH (n = 17), and healthy controls (n = 45). The discriminative accuracy of this 18-gene signature was 100% in separating sarcoidosis patients with PH from those without it. If validated in a large replicate cohort, this signature could potentially be used as a diagnostic molecular biomarker for sarcoidosis-associated PH. . . Read more…Link to full text
Original Research Article
Ronald Oudiz, Manyoo Agarwal, Franz Rischard, Teresa De Marco
December 2016, Vol. 6, No. 4: 532–538
Stable URL: http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/full/10.1086/688711
From the Abstract:
Patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) often require parenteral prostanoids to improve symptoms and signs of PAH. Complications of parenteral prostanoids—such as catheter-related infections and intolerable adverse effects—may develop, prompting transition to inhaled prostanoids. We report a prospective, protocol-driven transition from parenteral prostanoids to inhaled prostanoids with monitoring of exercise gas exchange and acute hemodynamics. Three PAH centers recruited patients transitioning from parenteral prostanoids to inhaled trepostinil. Rigid inclusion criteria were used, including parenteral prostanoid dose < 30 ng/kg/min, New York Heart Association functional class (FC) < 3, and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) < 6 Wood units. Of the 9 patients meeting initial inclusion criteria, 3 were excluded. In the remaining patients, the parenteral prostanoid was reduced and the inhaled prostanoid was increased over 24–36 hours with continuous hemodynamic monitoring. Exercise capacity and FC were measured at baseline and weeks 1, 4, and 12. All patients were successfully weaned from parenteral prostanoids. An acute PVR decrease was seen with most inhaled prostanoid doses, but PVR varied throughout the transition. . . Read more…Link to full text
A message from PVRI President, Paul Corris, M.D.
It is with a deep sense of responsibility, humility and pleasure that I take over the baton from Glennis in accepting the role of President of PVRI. Glennis has been an absolute bundle of efficient energy and in her two years of office has overseen a major transformation of PVRI from a club to a fully established scientific society. PVRI has grown from its childhood and teenage years into young adulthood and a transition from paediatric to adult care is now necessary.
In Rome, we launched our fantastic new website which has been built with the collaboration of the PVRI Head Office team, a specialist web-design agency and the energetic members of our Committee for Young Clinicians & Scientists. The considerable investment in time and resources this has required will provide a highly functioning platform for all our members and will greatly enhance the work of PVRI.
On that topic, 2016 sees a major launch of a web-based education programme, a focus on Pulmonary Circulation and a review of the structure of the various task forces.
The British relay teams have recently shown an annoying habit of dropping the baton in athletic finals, but I can assure all that I have no intention of dropping the PVRI baton. Seriously though, I have a tough act to follow, but rest assured that I will be working hard to maintain impetus and ensure that the PVRI’s adulthood continues in the right direction.
Many thanks to Glennis for her competent captaincy and commitment and if you think I employ too much alliteration in my writing, you’re absolutely correct!
PVRI Membership - Join or Renew today!
If you haven’t already renewed your PVRI membership, it’s now time to log-in and do so.
If you're not already a member of the PVRI, there are many benefits in joining. Our new website has all the latest information on pulmonary hypertension and PVD available to you and with over 800 e-learning materials, Pulmonary Circulation articles and PVRI Chronicle articles, there is something of interest for everyone. Only paid members can now view the e-learning content, so it is important you sign up. You have a 30-day free membership trial, just in case you change your mind.
A conversation with Dustin R. Fraidenburg, M.D., Chief Fellow in Pulmonary, Critical Care Medicine at the University of Illinois at Chicago.
Dr. Dustin Fraidenburg earned his M.D. at Wayne State University in Detroit, Michigan and did his residency in Internal Medicine at the University of Illinois at Chicago. He is in his final year of fellowship training in Pulmonary, Critical Care medicine at the University of Illinois at Chicago, where he has served as Chief Fellow since 2015. Dr. Fraidenburg serves on the Pulmonary Circulation Writing and Consulting Committee.
PC: What is your area of research interest and what projects are you currently involved in?
DF: My research focuses primarily on studying the cellular and molecular mechanisms of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction and my current project is concentrated on how acute lung inflammation and injury affects hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction. In particular, how upregulation of the NFAT transcription factor during acute lung inflammation can affect pulmonary artery vasoreactivity through its effects on functional and transcriptional regulation of calcium channels in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells. My project takes a unique approach to tackling the ventilation-perfusion mismatch which leads to profound hypoxemia in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. I believe a better understanding of mechanisms that impair hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction, a product of evolution meant to protect the diseased lung, could very well lead to distinctive therapeutic targets in ARDS among many other lung diseases.
PC: Why did you specialize in PVD?
DF: Pulmonary vascular disease was and still is a rapidly expanding area of research in respiratory diseases and there have been such great strides recently in both basic science, translational, and clinical research that I knew there was abundant opportunity to do research to discover the disease mechanisms involved, help patients, and develop a solid academic career. The people that have been on my side throughout my training are definitely the reason that I have both enjoyed and prospered in research on pulmonary vascular disease. I have had the pleasure of working with some amazing mentors as well as colleagues that shared my desire to produce really great research.
PC: What is the most exciting new topic in PVD research right now?
DF: There are so many researchers doing great work in the field. One of the really interesting things out there to read about right now is the lung-on-a-chip coming out of Harvard. New technologies and innovative techniques are really going to revolutionize both drug development as well as our understanding of many disease processes.
PC: What’s “lung-on-a-chip”?
DF: The lung-on-a-chip is a really unique three dimensional model of the human lung. It is a small chip containing airway epithelial cells on one side of a membrane that are exposed to oxygenated gas and pulmonary vascular cells on the opposite side of the membrane with culture media or solutions mimicking blood that flow across it. Additionally, there is a vacuum to create stretching forces on each side to mimic the changes of respiration. This allows experimental modeling of various injuries or therapies which will have wide ranging implications in basic science and translational research. (For more information, see the Wyss Institute at Harvard's website.)
PC: Where do you hope to see the field of PVD research in five years?
DF: In 5 to 10 years from now I very much expect the divisions between basic science and clinical research to become further blurred. I fully expect that the continued challenges researchers are faced with (for example, securing research funding and the distribution of public dollars to science) will lead to a revolution in how research is now divided as a necessary step to improve our effectiveness. Additionally, with mobile technology and social media making the world ever smaller, collaboration will be essential to our efficiency as researchers. Removing the redundancy from the system and illuminating the strengths of each group will help everyone to focus on our ultimate goal, the eradication of human disease. For research on pulmonary vascular disease in particular, I feel that a new generation of therapeutic agents for pulmonary hypertension will become available. It will be interesting to see therapies that shift from the pulmonary vasodilators, which will remain mainstays in treatment, to focus on mechanisms of maladaptive right ventricular remodeling or reversal of vascular remodeling with unique cellular and genetic targets.
PVRI Report - 10th PVRI Annual World Congress on PVD
PVRI President's Blog
2016, No. 1, First Quarter Edition
Welcome to the first joint edition of PVRI/PC Journal News!
Pulmonary Circulation is proud to be the official journal of the Pulmonary Vascular Research Institute (PVRI), the only global medical research charity dedicated to the fight against pulmonary vascular diseases.
The PVRI’s three guiding principles are to Inform, Collaborate, and Combat.
PVRI informs its members and the wider research community by providing educational materials and a world-class journal dedicated to communicating research on pulmonary vascular disease; its members come together from all across the globe to collaborate in the search for a cure for PVD; and they bring together clinicians, research scientists, pharmaceutical companies, and regulatory bodies to find new ways to combat the disease.
It is our honor to be able to work in tandem with the PVRI to bring new insight, engagement and collaboration to the fight against pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary vascular diseases.
What's Inside This Issue
- President’s Blog - a message from the incoming president of the PVRI, Dr. Paul A. Corris;
- Featured Articles from the latest issue of Pulmonary Circulation;
- Researcher Spotlight - an interview with PC Writing & Consulting Committee member, Dr. Dustin Fraidenburg, on his research, interests and hopes for the future of PH and PVD research;
- PVRI Report - on the 10th PVRI Annual World Congress on PVD in Rome;
- PH in the News - our new regular feature by the PVRI Committee for Young Clinicians & Scientists;
- Mark Your Calendar! - announcements for exciting upcoming events.
As always, if you have any thoughts, ideas, or suggestions concerning Pulmonary Circulation, or would like to submit a reader’s comment to appear in the next issue of PC/PVRI News, please contact Managing Editor, Annisa Westcott at email@example.com.
The 10th PVRI Annual World Congress on Pulmonary Vascular Disease was held in the beautiful city of Rome, Italy on 14-17 January 2016.
This year's conference took place at the Rome Cavalieri, Waldorf-Astoria, atop the highest of Rome's seven hills, Monte Mario. With its breathtaking views of the city of Rome, the venue was a unique setting in which our over two hundred attendees came together with great enthusiasm to share knowledge, make new connections and solidify previous collaborative relationships.
The scientific programme was put together through the diligent efforts of many members of the PVRI, chief among them former PVRI president, Sheila Glennis Haworth, North American Task Force leader, Kurt Stenmark, and European Task Force leaders, Dario Vizza and Stefano Ghio. We extend our most sincere thanks for their hard work.
Logistically speaking, we have PVRI Operational Team members Andrea Rich, Stephanie Barwick, Aaron Shefras and Margaret Carver to thank for their extraordinary efforts in arranging the venue, the sightseeing tours and the Gala Dinner. Their above-and-beyond attitude, can-do spirit and healthy sense of humour made the event a phenomenal success.
The conference sessions and task force breakout meetings provided many hours of engaging discussion on the most up-to-the-minute and important topics in the field of pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary vascular disease. Each of the sessions will be available for viewing on the PVRI website shortly.
The PVRI Annual General Meeting and the semi-annual Pulmonary Circulation Editorial Board Meeting were also held during the congress. Both meetings were met with much enthusiasm and elicited great ideas for our future from all participants.
- 223 attendees from 28 different countries from around the world
- 53 speakers, chairs and facilitators
- First PVRI event that received CME registration. The event was accredited by the ECCME (European Council for Continuous Medical Education) and received a total of 17 CME credits.
- Overwhelming positive feedback
2016 PVRI Award Winners
As is our tradition, several awards were presented during the Gala Dinner to members of the PVRI who have made outstanding contributions to the field of PVD and to the PVRI. We again extend congratulations to all our prize winners.
- Lewis Rubin received the Lifetime Achievement Award in recognition of his distinguished contributions to advances in patient care and research in PVD.
- Nick Morrell received the 2015 Achievement Award for his outstanding contribution to medical research, to the PVRI and to its journal Pulmonary Circulation as co-Editor-in-Chief.
- Ian Adatia and the PVRI Paediatric Task Force received the 2015 Certificate of Achievement in recognition of their outstanding contributions to the PVRI. Unfortunately, Ian could not make it to the Gala Dinner to accept this award.
In conclusion, the 10th PVRI Annual World Congress on Pulmonary Vascular Disease was an overwhelming success, our largest conference to date, and a magnificent opportunity for the advancement of our understanding of the pathobiology and treatment of pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary vascular disease. We may not have a cure yet, but each time we bring together the great minds working on PVD we create a fertile environment from which curative strategies and options may grow.
Please join us next year in Miami, Florida for our 11th PVRI Annual World Congress, on 26-29 January 2017!
PH in the News
Study Reports an Association Between Pulmonary Hypertension and Non-Dialysis Dependent Chronic Kidney Disease
Mariella Vélez Martínez
PVRI Committee for Young Clinicians & Scientists
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) carries an increased risk for incurring cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality. Traditional factors influencing an elevated risk in CKD patients include hypertension, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia. Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is also an important contributor to cardiovascular disease morbidity, and has not yet been fully studied in the non-dialysis dependent CKD population. However, authors from a recently published article in theJournal of the American Society of Nephrology concluded that PH is an independent predictor of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in non-dialysis dependent CKD. (Navaneethan S, et al. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, published online before print September 18, 2015, doi: 10.1681/ASN.2014111111).
This study used the data from the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study to evaluate the prevalence, risk factors and clinical outcomes of pulmonary hypertension, as measured by echocardiography (pulmonary artery systolic pressure [PASP] > 35 mmHg and/or tricuspid regurgitant velocity [TRV] >2.5 m/s), in this patient population. The CRIC Study was established in 2003 and enrolled approximately 3000 patients, with a broad spectrum of renal disease severity, at seven sites and followed participants for up to 5 years.
The investigators found a prevalence of PH of 21% in this population. They also identified the following risk factors associated with PH in this patient population: older age, non-Hispanic blacks, a lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and comorbid conditions, such as obesity and diabetes. In a cross-sectional multivariable model, those patients who were older, with anemia, lower left ventricular ejection fraction, and left ventricular hypertrophy had a higher chance of having PH as measured at the year 1 CRIC study visit.
After a median follow up of approximately 4 years and adjusting for confounders, the investigators found that the presence of PH was associated with an elevated risk for all-cause mortality and cardiovascular outcomes. In addition, higher ranges of TRV and PASP were shown to predict a higher risk of cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality, including a higher risk for congestive heart failure, even in those without preexisting heart failure.
The authors concluded having used an echo-based definition of PH in their study is a well-known limitation, given that “the sensitivity and specificity of echocardiography to diagnose PH are modest (83% and 72% respectively).” They did perform sensitivity analyses in light of this known limitation. The analyses indeed confirmed that a TRV > 2.9 m/sec imparts a higher risk of cardiovascular events and mortality. The investigators also noted that their study did not determine the etiology of the association between PH and poor outcomes in this population, due to the epidemiologic nature of the investigation. Finally, the authors concluded that more mechanistic studies are needed in order to further investigate the etiology of this association.
Mark Your Calendar!
PVRI Chronicle - February
Keep an eye out for the next edition of the PVRI Chronicle, Volume 3, Issue 1. It will be available via the PVRI website by end of February, 2016.
PVRI Charity Dinner and Auction of Promises - April
The PVRI will be holding a Charity Dinner and Auction at the Foundling Museum in London, 19 April, 2016. There will be lots of exciting auction prizes to bid on and all proceeds go to charity. Watch the PVRI website for further information.
ATS 2016 Get-Together in San Francisco - May
Following the success of last year's event, we are planning to hold another PVRI Get-Together during the ATS in San Francisco, 13-18 May, 2016. Watch the PVRI website for registration details.
3rd Annual PVRI Drug Discovery & Development Symposium in Bethesda, USA - July
Save the date in your diary: 11-12 July, 2016, at the Bethesda North Marriott Hotel & Conference Center - 5701 Marinelli Road North, Bethesda, MD 20852. We are delighted to announce that the FDA is a co-sponsor of the meeting. Click here to download the full scientific agenda. More information can be found on the PVRI website, here.
Registration is now open!
We have a new website!
Pulmonary Circulation is proud to announce the launch of the new PVRI website at www.pvri.info. A joint effort between PVRI and PC, the Pulmonary Circulation side of the website features free access to all articles published in the journal, plus journal information and news, and on the PVRI side you will find all the specialised educational and collaborative content available to the general public, alongside even richer content and features in its members-only site. The website is rich with valuable content produced through collaboration with all of our members and numerous experts in pulmonary vascular disease.
On the journal side, you will soon be able to access all of the articles published in PC since its inception in 2011, along with our freshest articles, ahead of print. Please visit “Explore the Journal” to read PC, the “Info for Authors” page for information relating to the submission of articles, our “About” page for information about our editors and editorial board, and, of course, the “News” page for journal news and press releases.
The new website offers users a new, friendlier experience and a richer forum for collaboration in the fight against pulmonary vascular disease.
We are proud to be the official peer-reviewed journal of the Pulmonary Vascular Research Institute.