Activation of BMP receptors leads to phosphorylation of Smads and activation of extracellular signal regulated kinases (ERKs). ERK activation limits the c-terminus phosphorylation of Smad1/5. Stimulation of ERK by receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) can further limit Smad c-terminus phosphorylation. These effects are integrated at the level of Id gene expression which then have critical roles in cell differentiation and proliferation.
Additional keywords: ERK,tyrosine kinase inhibitor,smad,FPAH