Animal models of pulmonary hypertension are consistently characterized by adventitial/peri-vascular accumulation of leukocytes, and in particular mononuclear cells. (A) Illustrates the accumulation of mononuclear cells/macrophages in the adventitial/ perivascular regions of chronically hypoxic rats, calves, and mice. (B) Perivascular accumulation of mononuclear cells (CD14+ cells) is observed in the human patient with iPAH. (C) Mouse models of pulmonary hypertension, including transgenic VIP/ mice, adiponectin (APN) deficient mice, IL-6 transgenic mice, and the BMPR2 mutated mouse model all exhibit perivascular accumulation of leukocytes.
Additional keywords: leukocyte,macrophages