01 January 2015 by Rubin Tuder, Brian Graham

Examples of smooth muscle cell based remodeling in veno-occlusive (a-c), cigarette smoke induced respiratory bronchiolitis (d-f), and IPAH (g, h)

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Tuder {RM},Graham {BB}.The diseased endothelium: Would it explain it all?. [Internet]. 2010 ;2:5. Available from:http://www.pvrireview.org/text.asp?2010/2/1/5/58622

Examples of smooth muscle cell based remodeling in veno-occlusive (a-c), cigarette smoke induced respiratory bronchiolitis (d-f), and IPAH (g, h). The overall pulmonary artery thickening due to increase in vascular smooth muscle cells is similar in all conditions, exemplified in hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections (a, e), smooth muscle actin immunohistochemistry (b, d, h), Factor VIII related antigen immunohistochemistry (c), and elastic stain (f,g), either arterial or venous pulmonary hypertension cause similar smooth muscle based remodeling. The difficulty of predicting the presence or severity of pulmonary hypertension based on smooth muscle cell based remodeling is illustrated by the extensive remodeling in cigarette smoke induced pulmonary vascular changes with mild or no pulmonary hypertension.

 

Additional keywords: tobacco,veno-occlusive,IPAH,

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