This diagram highlights the components of pulmonary vascular alterations observed in COPD/emphysema lungs and some of their proposed mechanisms. Hypoxia and vasoconstriction likely independently affect the lung vessels and promote remodeling. Remodeling affects the three layers of the vessels: intima, media and adventitia. Endothelial cell apoptosis may be critically important and lead to both intima fibrosis and muscularization. The large box symbolizes an endothelial cell and illustrates alterations in gene expression which affects endothelial cell function.
Additional keywords: inflammation,VEGF,HiF-1alpha,in situ thrombosis