Proposed signaling pathways for apelin and APLNR. The figure summarizes data obtained from both systemic and pulmonary vasculature and both left and right ventriclet. A: the structure of apelin-13 showing the site for ACE-2 mediated hydrolysis. B: known pathways in endothelial cells, C: vascular smooth muscle cells, and D: cardiomytes, blue : Stimulates activity; red : Decreases activity. Na2+/Ca2+ E: Na2+/Ca2+ exchanger, Na2+/H+ E: Na2+/Ca2+ exchanger.
Additional keywords: apelin,factor,contractility,apoptosis