The activated adventitial fibroblast plays a pivotal role in the recruitment and retention of inflammatory cells in the vascular wall. In response to a variety of environmental stimuli, the adventitial fibroblast, potentially through a number of cell surface receptors, including Toll-like receptors (TLR), integrins, and receptors for advanced glycosolation end products (RAGE) is activated to produce extracellular matrix proteins, matricellular proteins, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs). In addition, the fibroblast upregulates production of chemokines and cytokines, adhesion molecules, and angiogenic factors. This leads to the recruitment of leukocytes and ultimately to an increase in vasa vasorum density or adventitial neovascularization, which perpetuates the inflammatory process.
Additional keywords: fibroblast,factor