03 September 2021

This week in PVD

Low oxygen increases chloride levels in PASMCs in animal study

Higher levels of chloride in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) may contribute to the development of pulmonary hypertension (PH) after exposure to low oxygen (hypoxia), a study in a rat model suggested.

The study, “Increased intracellular Cl− concentration in pulmonary arterial myocytes is associated with chronic hypoxic pulmonary hypertension,” was published in the American Journal of Physiology-Cell Physiology.

Experiencing reduced oxygen levels for a lengthy period is known to cause changes to the structure of the arteries in the lungs. Many of these changes have been shown, in previous studies, to be associated with abnormal levels of certain ions in PASMCs, as well as dysregulated ion channels. That, in turn, ultimately contributes to increased lung vasoconstriction, or blood vessel tightening.

Chloride, a type of electrolyte, is involved in several vital biological processes. Its accumulation and the activation of chloride channels in vascular smooth muscle cells, which line arteries, ultimately cause smooth muscle contraction, according to researchers.

Covid-19 not respiratory disease but vascular illness: Study

COVID-19 is a vascular condition rather than a pulmonary illnesss, said a study by the University of California-San Diego. This study could reveal blood clots in some COVID patients as well as other concerns such as COVID feet which are not usual indicators of a respiratory problem.

This research was published in the journal Circulation Research that demonstrated how the virus targets the arterial or circulatory system.

Earlier, majority of Covid infected patients used to believe that having mild to moderate respiratory symptoms will recover without needing any care and professionals. Whereas people over 65 years of age with medical issues such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, chronic respiratory disease, and cancer, are at higher risk of developing serious symptoms.

Diseases of heart are complex, success depends on innovation: payal agrawal, structural heart division abbott

Congenital Heart Disease (CHD) refers to a problem with the heart’s structure that is present at birth. Such defects are not rare; more than 200,000 children are estimated to be born with congenital heart disease in India every year and this poses a tremendous challenge for the families, society, and health care system. Majorly, CHDs could be a hole in the heart or an abnormal blood flow owing to improperly formed valves and more. In an exclusive conversation with Financial Express Online Payal Agrawal, GM & Country Head, Structural Heart Division Abbott talked about paediatric cardiac care services for CHD and more. Excerpts:

Study shows combo therapy cuts risk of heart attacks and strokes by half

GENEVA (29 August 2021) – A combination therapy of aspirin, statins and at least two blood pressure medications given in fixed doses can slash the risk of fatal cardiovascular disease (CVD) by more than half, says an international study involving researchers from the World Heart Federation and published today in The Lancet.

The fixed-dose combination (FDC) therapies were examined both with and without aspirin versus control groups in a combined analysis of more than 18,000 patients without prior CVD from three large clinical trials. FDCs including aspirin cut the risk of heart attacks by 53 per cent, stroke by 51 per cent, and deaths from cardiovascular causes by about 49 per cent.

The researchers report approximately 19 million people worldwide die of CVD and twice as many experience heart attacks or strokes every year. About 80 per cent of cardiovascular events occur in individuals without a prior history of such illness, meaning effective preventative strategies including medications in people without CVD are essential if we are to prevent the majority of heart attacks, strokes and related deaths in the world.

Delhi air pollution: Study links poor air quality with obesity and asthma among children

Exposure to high levels of air pollution can make children obese and put them at greater risk of asthma, a new study has found.

The study said obese children had a 79% greater chance of having asthma.

This association was highest seen in Delhi, which experiences hazardous air quality every year.

And while there could be many causes for obesity in children, "ambient air pollution could be an important contributing factor", it said.

The study by the Lung Care Foundation and Pulmocare Research and Education is the first in India to establish a link between overweight children, asthma and air pollution.

Experts have long warned that prolonged exposure to unclean air could lead to respiratory illnesses, especially among children. They say urgent action is required to protect them.

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