Balloon pulmonary angioplasty for chronic thromboembolic pulmonary disease without pulmonary hypertension

2 July 2024

Takatoyo KikoRyotaro AsanoHiroyuki EndoNaruhiro NishiHiroya HayashiAkiyuki KotokuHiroki HorinouchiJin UedaTatsuo AokiAkihiro TsujiTetsuya FukudaTakeshi Ogo


Balloon pulmonary angioplasty (BPA) is beneficial for patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary disease (CTEPD) with pulmonary hypertension (PH). However, the clinical benefit of BPA for the patients with CTEPD without PH remains unknown. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and long-term outcomes of BPA in patients with CTEPD without PH. We retrospectively analyzed the data from 84 CTEPD patients with mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) < 25 mmHg and 39 CTEPD patients with mPAP ≤ 20 mmHg (without PH). Among the 39 patients with CTEPD without PH, 14 underwent BPA (BPA-treated group), and the remaining 25 received no treatment (untreated group). In the patients with CTEPD without PH, BPA led to improvements in symptoms, pulmonary vascular resistance (3.6 ± 1.6 to 2.6 ± 1.1 Wood units, p < 0.001), peak oxygen consumption (16.1 ± 4.0 to 18.8 ± 4.3 mL/kg/min, p = 0.033), minute ventilation versus carbon dioxide production slope (41.4 ± 12.2 to 35.1 ± 6.7, p = 0.026), and mPAP/cardiac output slope (7.0 ± 2.6 to 4.4 ± 2.0 mmHg/L/min, p = 0.004) and facilitated the discontinuation of home oxygenation therapy, with no serious complications. Kaplan–Meier analysis showed no significant difference in all-cause mortality between the untreated and BPA-treated groups. BPA may be a safe treatment option for the patients with CTEPD without PH that can alleviate symptoms, improve exercise capacity, and facilitate weaning from home oxygen therapy. Further prospective randomized trials are needed to confirm these findings.

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